Skip to main content


Published onFeb 27, 2020

18F. 2017. Lean Product Design. Accessed October 2, 2017.

99% Invisible. 2014. “A Short History of the High Heel.” Slate, June 19, 2014.

Abraham, Mark. 2011. “New Reports Highlight Potential Policy Solutions to Connecticut Achievement Gap.” DataHaven, January 23, 2011.

Ad Astra Workshop. 2014. “Next Ad Astra Workshop: At the Social Justice Discotech Conference on A24!” Save the date flyer. April 3, 2014.

ADA. 2007. “Website Accessibility under Title II of the ADA.” ADA Best Practices Tool Kit for State and Local Governments. May 7, 2007.

Adam, Emma K., Jennifer A. Heissel, Katharine H. Zeiders, Jennifer A. Richeson, Emily C. Ross, Katherine B. Ehrlich, Dorainne J. Levy, et al. 2015. “Developmental Histories of Perceived Racial Discrimination and Diurnal Cortisol Profiles in Adulthood: A 20-Year Prospective Study.” Psychoneuroendocrinology 62 (December): 279–291.

Adamoli, Ginevra. 2012. “Social Media and Social Movements: A Critical Analysis of Audience’s Use of Facebook to Advocate Food Activism Offline.” Electronic theses, treatises, and dissertations, paper 5310. Doctoral Dissertation for The Florida State University College of Communication and Information.

Alexander, M. Jacqui. 2005. Pedagogies of Crossing: Meditations on Feminism, Sexual Politics, Memory, and the Sacred. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Aliseda, Atocha. 2006. Abductive Reasoning. Vol. 330. Dordrecht: Springer, 2006.

Allen, Jonathan, ed. 2019. March 4: Scientists, Students, and Society. Anniversary edition. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Allied Media Conference. 2012. “DiscoTechs UNITE! Part 2.” Workshop description. Allied Media Conference Program.

Allied Media Conference. 2013. “Discovering Technology (DiscoTech) Lab.” Workshop description. Allied Media Conference Program.

Allied Media Projects. n.d. “Network Principles.” Accessed June 15, 2019.

Alpert, Meryl. 2018. Giving Voice: Mobile Communication, Disability, and Inequality. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Alter, Lloyd. 2012. “Crapping on Bill Gates’ ‘Reinvent the Toilet’ Winner.” Treehugger, August 22, 2012.

Angwin, Julia, Jeff Larson, Surya Mattu, and Lauren Kirchner. 2016. “Machine Bias.” ProPublica, May 23, 2016.

Angwin, Julia, and H. Grassegger. 2017. “Facebook’s Secret Censorship Rules Protect White Men from Hate Speech but Not Black Children,” ProPublica, June 27, 2017.

Arce, Eric, and Denise A. Segura. 2015. “Stratification in the Labor Market.” In The Wiley Blackwell Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and Nationalism, edited by John Stone, Rutledge Dennis, Polly Rizova, Anthony Smith, and Xiaoshuo Hou. Chichester, West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons.

Arnstein, Sherry R. 1969. “A Ladder of Citizen Participation.” Journal of the American Institute of Planners 35, no. 4: 216–224.

Asaro, Peter M. 2000. “Transforming Society by Transforming Technology: The Science and Politics of Participatory Design.” Accounting, Management and Information Technologies 10, no. 4: 257–290.

Asaro, P. 2014. “Participatory Design.” In The Encyclopedia of Science, Technology and Ethics, 2nd ed., edited by Carl Mitcham, 345–347. New York: Macmillon.

Asharia, Anjum, Marisa Jahn, Natalicia Tracy, Rafaela Serrano, Leo Burd, Tamer Zoubi, Alexandre Goncalves, et al. 2013. Claro que Si: Domestic Worker Health & Safety Hotline. Civic Media Collaborative Design Studio. Cambridge, MA: MIT.

Autistici/Inventati. 2017. +KAOS: Ten Years of Hacking and Media Activism. Amsterdam: Institute of Network Cultures.

Bailey, Moya Z., Brooke Foucault Welles, and Sarah J. Jackson. 2019. #HashtagActivism: Race and Gender in America’s Network Counterpublics. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Bannon, Liam, Jeffrey Bardzell, and Susanne Bødker. 2019. “Reimagining Participatory Design.” Interactions 26, no. 1: 26–32.

Baptiste, Nathalie. 2014. “Staggering Loss of Black Wealth Due to Subprime Scandal Continues Unabated.” American Prospect, October 13, 2014.

Bar, François, Matthew S. Weber, and Francis Pisani. 2016. “Mobile Technology Appropriation in a Distant Mirror: Baroquization, Creolization, and Cannibalism.” New Media & Society 18, no. 4: 617–636.

Barassi, Veronica. 2013. “Ethnographic Cartographies: Social Movements, Alternative Media and the Spaces of Networks.” Social Movement Studies 12, no. 1: 48–62.

Bardzell, Shaowen. 2010. “Feminist HCI: Taking Stock and Outlining an Agenda for Design.” In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 1301–1310. New York: ACM.

Barnett, Rosalind, and Caryl Rivers. 2017. “We’ve Studied Gender and STEM for 25 Years. The Science Doesn’t Support the Google Memo.” Recode, August 11, 2017.

Baudrillard, Jean. 1995. The Gulf War Did Not Take Place. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Baughman, Galen, Josh Gravens, Andrew Extein, Susanna Pho, and Miho Kitagawa. 2014. I Am Not a Dot: Humanizing the US Sex Offender Registry. Civic Media Collaborative Design Studio. Cambridge, MA: MIT.

Beauchamp, Toby. 2009. “Artful Concealment and Strategic Visibility: Transgender Bodies and U.S. State Surveillance after 9/11.” Surveillance & Society 6, no. 4: 356–366.

Benford, Robert D., and David A. Snow. 2000. “Framing Processes and Social Movements: An Overview and Assessment.” Annual Review of Sociology 26:611–639.

Bengry-Howell, Andrew and Christine Griffin. 2007. “Self-Made Motormen: The Material Construction of Working-class Masculine Identities through Car Modification.” Journal of Youth Studies 10, no. 4: 439–458.

Benjamin, Ruha. 2016a. “Catching Our Breath: Critical Race STS and the Carceral Imagination.” Engaging Science, Technology, and Society 2:145–156.

Benjamin, Ruha. 2016b. “Innovating Inequity: If Race Is a Technology, Postracialism Is the Genius Bar.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 39, no. 13: 2227–2234.

Benjamin, Ruha. 2019a. Race After Technology: Abolitionist Tools for the New Jim Code. Cambridge: Polity.

Benjamin, Ruha. 2019b. Captivating Technology: Race, Carceral Technoscience, and Liberatory Imagination in Everyday Life. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Benkler, Yochai. 2006. The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Bernal, Dolores Delgado. 1998. “Using a Chicana Feminist Epistemology in Educational Research.” Harvard Educational Review 68, no. 4: 555–583.

Bezdek, Barbara L. 2013. “Citizen Engagement in the Shrinking City: Toward Development Justice in an Era of Growing Inequality.” St. Louis University Public Law Review 33:2014–2020.

Bhargava, Rahul, and Catherine D’Ignazio. 2015. “Designing Tools and Activities for Data Literacy Learners.” Paper presented at the Web Science: Data Literacy Workshop. Oxford, UK, April 2015.

Bhargava, Rahul, Ricardo Kadoukai, Emily Bhargava, Guilherme Castro, and Catherine D’Ignazio. 2016. “Data Murals: Using the Arts to Build Data Literacy.” Journal of Community Informatics 12, no. 3.

Bivens, R. 2017. “The Gender Binary Will Not Be Deprogrammed: Ten Years of Coding Gender on Facebook.” New Media & Society 19, no. 6: 880–898.

Blevins, Jeffrey L., 2018. “Social Media and Social Justice Movements after the Diminution of Black-Owned Media in the United States.” In Media Across the African Diaspora: Content, Audiences, and Influence, edited by Omotayo O. Banjo, 191–203. New York: Taylor & Francis.

Bogost, Ian. 2017. “A Googler’s Would-Be Manifesto Reveals Tech’s Rotten Core.” Atlantic, August 6, 2017.

Boud, David, and Grahame Feletti. 2013. The Challenge of Problem-Based Learning. New York: Routledge.

boyd, danah, Karen Levy, and Alice Marwick. 2014. “The Networked Nature of Algorithmic Discrimination.” In Data and Discrimination: Collected Essays, edited by Seeta Peña Gangadharan, Virginia Eubanks, and Solon Barocas, 53–58. Washington, DC: Open Technology Institute and the New America Foundation.

Braman, Sandra. 2009. Change of State: Information, Policy, and Power. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Braman, Sandra. 2011. “The Framing Years: Policy Fundamentals in the Internet Design Process, 1969–1979.” Information Society 27, no. 5: 295–310.

Braman, Sandra. 2012. “Privacy by Design: Networked Computing, 1969–1979.” New Media & Society 14, no. 5: 798–814.

Bright, Peter. 2018. “Amazon Staff to Bezos: Stop Selling Tech to Law Enforcement, Palantir.” Ars Technica, June 22, 2018.

Briscoe, Gerard, and Catherine Mulligan. 2014. “Digital Innovation: The Hackathon Phenomenon.” Creativeworks London, working paper no. 6.

Brock, André. 2018. “Critical Technocultural Discourse Analysis.” New Media & Society 20, no. 3: 1012–1030.

Broussard, Meredith. 2018. Artificial Unintelligence: How Computers Misunderstand the World. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

brown, adrienne maree. 2017. Emergent Strategy: Shaping Change, Changing Worlds. Chico, CA: AK Press.

Brown, Tim. 2009. Change by Design: How Design Thinking Transforms Organizations and Inspires Innovation. New York: HarperBusiness.

Browne, Simone. 2015. Dark Matters: On the Surveillance of Blackness. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Bruckman, Amy, and Mitchel Resnick. 1996. “The MediaMOO Project: Constructionism and Professional Community.” Constructionism in Practice: Designing, Thinking, and Learning in a Digital World, edited by Yasmin B. Kafai and Mitchel Resnick, 207–222. New York: Routledge.

Buhr, Sarah. 2016. “Weed On-Demand Startup Eaze Inhales $13 Million in Funding to Grow into New Markets.” TechCrunch, October 24, 2016.

Buolamwini, Joy Adowaa. 2017. “Gender Shades: Intersectional Phenotypic and Demographic Evaluation of Face Datasets and Gender Classifiers.” MSc diss., Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Buolamwini, Joy, and Timnit Gebru. 2018. “Gender Shades: Intersectional Accuracy Disparities in Commercial Gender Classification.” Proceedings of Machine Learning Research 81:1–15.

Burckle, Frederick. 2013. “Civilian Mortality after the 2003 Invasion of Iraq.” Lancet 381, no. 9870: 877–879.

Burdge, Hilary, Zami T. Hyemingway, and Adela C. Licona. 2014. Gender Nonconforming Youth: Discipline Disparities, School Push-Out, and the School-to-Prison Pipeline. San Francisco and Tucson: Gay-Straight Alliance Network and Crossroads Collaborative at the University of Arizona.

Bush, Corlann Gee. 1983. “Women and the Assessment of Technology: To Think, to Be; to Unthink, to Free.” In Machina ex dea: Feminist Perspectives on Technology, edited by Joan Rothchild, 151–170. New York: Teacher’s College Press.

Butler, Lindsey J., Madeleine K. Scammell, and Eugene B. Benson. 2016. “The Flint, Michigan, Water Crisis: A Case Study in Regulatory Failure and Environmental Injustice.” Environmental Justice 9, no. 4: 93–97.

Byrne, E., and P. M. Alexander. 2006. “Questions of Ethics: Participatory Information Systems Research in Community Settings.” In Proceedings of the 2006 Annual Research Conference of the South African Institute of Computer Scientists and Information Technologists on IT Research in Developing Countries, edited by Judith Bishop and Derrick Kourie, 117–126. Republic of South Africa: South African Institute for Computer Scientists and Information Technologists.

Calvo, William. 2011. “Lowriders: Cruising the Color Line.” PhD diss., Arizona State University.

Cammaerts, Bart. 2015. “Technologies of Self-Mediation: Affordances and Constraints of Social Media for Protest Movements.” In Civic Engagement and Social Media, edited by Julie Uldam and Anne Vestergaard, 87–110. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Caplan, Robyn, J. Donovan, L. Hanson, and Jenna Matthews. 2018. “Algorithmic Accountability: A Primer.” Washington, DC: Data & Society.

Capps, Kriston. 2017. “Almost 200 Firms Are Interested in Building Trump’s Wall.” CityLab, February 28, 2017.

Captain, Sean. 2018. “Anti-ICE Protesters Descend on Salesforce Tower in San Francisco.” Fast Company, July 9, 2018.

Carey, James W. 1983. “Technology and Ideology: The Case of the Telegraph.” Prospects 8:303–325.

CCTV. 2013. Spring 2013 Codesign Studio Booklet. Civic Media Collaborative Design Studio. Cambridge, MA: MIT.

Center for Urban Pedagogy. 2011. Dialed In: A Cell Phone Literacy Toolkit. Brooklyn, NY: Center for Urban Pedagogy.

Chakravartty, Paula. 2006. “Who Speaks for the Governed? World Summit on Information Society, Civil Society and the Limits of ‘Multi-stakeholderism.’” Economic and Political Weekly 41, no. 3 (January 21–27): 250–257.

Chan, Anita Say. 2014. Networking Peripheries: Technological Futures and the Myth of Digital Universalism. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Chao, Sharon. 2018. “MIT Professors Spearhead Petition in Support of Microsoft Employees Protesting Contract with ICE.” Tech, July 26, 2018,

Chardronnet, Ewen. 2015. “GynePunk, the Cyborg Witches of DIY Gynecology.” Makery, June 30, 2015.

Charlton, James I. 1998. Nothing about Us without Us: Disability Oppression and Empowerment. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.

Chemaly, Soraya. 2016. “The Problem with a Technology Revolution Designed Primarily for Men.” Quartz, March 16, 2016.

Chun, Wendy Hui Kyong. 2005. Control and Freedom: Power and Paranoia in the Age of Fiber Optics. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

City of Boston. 2015. “Mayor Walsh Releases Report Exploring the Creation of Additional Neighborhood Innovation Districts.” Mayor’s Press Office, September 28, 2015.

Cizek, Katerina, William Uricchio, Juanita Anderson, Maria Aqui Carter, Detroit Narrative Agency, Thomas Allen Harris, Maori Holmes, Richard Lachman, Louis Massiah, Cara Mertes, Sara Rafsky, Michèle Stephenson, Amelia Winger-Bearskin, and Sarah Wolozin. 2019. Collective Wisdom: Co-creating with Communities, across Disciplines and with Algorithms. Cambridge, MA: MIT Open Documentary Lab.

Clay, Kelly. 2013. “3D Printing Company MakerBot Acquired in $604 Million Deal.” Forbes, June 19, 2013.

CNN. 2016. “Exit Polls 2016.”

Code2040. n.d. “Background.” Code2040. Accessed January 14, 2017.

Coffey, Mary K. 2015. “US American Art in the Americas.” In A Companion to American Art, edited by John Davis, Jennifer A. Greenhill, and Jason D. LaFountain, 281–298. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons.

Coleman, E. Gabriella. 2011. “Anonymous: From the Lulz to the Collective Action.” The New Everyday: A Media Commons Project

Collins, Patricia Hill. 2002. Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness, and the Politics of Empowerment. New York: Routledge.

Combahee River Collective. 1983. “The Combahee River Collective Statement.” In Home Girls: A Black Feminist Anthology, edited by Barbara Smith, 264–274. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Condliffe, Jamie. 2018. “Amazon Urged Not to Sell Facial Recognition Technology to Police.” New York Times, June 19, 2018.

Connell, Bettye Rose, Mike Jones, Ron Mace, Jim Mueller; Abir Mullick, Elaine Ostroff, Jon Sanford, et al. 1997. The Principles of Universal Design. Raleigh, NC: The Center for Universal Design, 1997.

Cook, Cynthia M., John J. Howard, Yevgeniy B. Sirotin, Jerry L. Tipton, and Arun R. Vemury. 2019. “Demographic Effects in Facial Recognition and Their Dependence on Image Acquisition: An Evaluation of Eleven Commercial Systems.” IEEE Transactions on Biometrics, Behavior, and Identity Science 1, no. 1: 32–41.

Cornell Tech. 2017. “Cornell Tech Campus Opens on Roosevelt Island, Marking Transformational Milestone for Tech in NYC.” Cornell Tech, September 12, 2017.

Costanza-Chock, Sasha. 2003. “WSIS, the Neoliberal Agenda, and Counterproposals from ‘Civil Society.’” Journal of Communication Inquiry 3, no. 2: 118–139.

Costanza-Chock, Sasha. 2011. “Digital Popular Communication: Lessons on Information and Communication Technologies for Social Change from the Immigrant Rights Movement.” National Civic Review 100, no. 3: 29–35.

Costanza-Chock, Sasha. 2012. “Mic Check! Media Cultures and the Occupy Movement.” Social Movement Studies 11, nos. 3–4: 375–385.

Costanza-Chock, Sasha. 2014. Out of the Shadows, Into the Streets! Transmedia Organizing and the Immigrant Rights Movement. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Costanza-Chock, Sasha. 2018. “Design Justice: Towards an Intersectional Feminist Framework for Design Theory and Practice.” In Proceedings of DRS 2018, volume 1, edited by Cristiano Storni, Keelin Leahy, Muireann McMahon, Peter Lloyd, and Erik Bohemia, 529–540. London: Design Research Society.

Costanza-Chock, Sasha, Maya Wagoner, Berhan Taye, Caroline Rivas, Chris Schweidler, Georgia Bullen, and the T4SJ Project. 2018. #MoreThanCode: Practitioners Reimagine the Landscape of Technology for Justice and Equity. Research Action Design & Open Technology Institute.

Costello, Cary Gabriel. 2016. “Traveling while Trans: The False Promise of Better Treatment.” Trans Advocate, January 3, 2016.

Cottle, Simon. 2008. “Reporting Demonstrations: The Changing Media Politics of Dissent.” Media, Culture & Society 30, no. 6: 853–872.

Cottom, Tressie McMillan. 2017. Lower Ed: The Troubling Rise of For-Profit Colleges in the New Economy. New York: New Press.

Crawford, Kate. 2016. “Can an Algorithm Be Agonistic? Ten Scenes from Life in Calculated Publics.” Science, Technology, & Human Values 41, no. 1: 77–92.

Crawford, Neta. 2017a. “United States Budgetary Costs of Post-9/11 Wars through FY2018: A Summary of the $5.6 Trillion in Costs for the US Wars in Iraq, Syria, Afghanistan and Pakistan, and Post-9/11 Veterans Care and Homeland Security.” Costs of War. Brown University Watson Institute for International & Public Affairs.

Crawford, Neta. 2017b. “Update on the Human Costs of War for Afghanistan and Pakistan, 2001 to mid-2016.” Costs of War. Brown University Watson Institute for International & Public Affairs.

Crenshaw, Kimberlé. 1991. “Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics, and Violence against Women of Color.” Stanford Law Review 43, no. 6 (July): 1241–1299.

Crenshaw, Kimberlé. 1989. “Demarginalizing the Intersection of Race and Sex: A Black Feminist Critique of Antidiscrimination Doctrine, Feminist Theory, and Antiracist Politics.” University of Chicago Legal Forum 1989, no. 1, article 8: 139–167.

Critical Art Ensemble. 2008. “Tactical Media at Dusk?” Third Text 22, no. 5: 535–548.

Crockford, Kade, Nathan Freitas, and Jeffrey Warren. 2014. Spidey: Android-Based Stingray Detector. Civic Media Collaborative Design Studio. Cambridge, MA: MIT.

Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly. 1996. Creativity: Flow and the Psychology of Discovery and Invention. New York: Harper Collins.

Cutting, Kieran, and Erkki Hedenborg. 2019. “Can Personas Speak? Biopolitics in Design Processes.” In Designing Interactive Systems Conference 2019 Companion, 153–157. New York: ACM.

D’Ignazio, Catherine, Alexis Hope, Becky Michelson, Robyn Churchill, and Ethan Zuckerman. 2016. “A Feminist HCI Approach to Designing Postpartum Technologies: When I First Saw a Breast Pump I Was Wondering if It Was a Joke.” In Proceedings of the 2016 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 2612–2622. New York: ACM.

D’Ignazio, Catherine, and Lauren F. Klein. 2019. Data Feminism. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2019.

Dalla Costa, Mariarosa, and Selma James. 1972. Women and the Subversion of the Community. Bristol, UK: Falling Wall Press.

Davenport, Thomas H., and John C. Beck. 2001. The Attention Economy: Understanding the New Currency of Business. Brighton, MA: Harvard Business Press.

Davies, Carole Boyce. 2007. Left of Karl Marx: The Political Life of Black Communist Claudia Jones. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Davis, Heath Fogg. 2017. Beyond Trans: Does Gender Matter? New York: NYU Press.

De Decker, Kris. 2010. “Recycling Animal and Human Dung Is the Key to Sustainable Farming.” Low Tech Magazine, September 15, 2010.

De Vogue, Ariana, Mary Kay Mallonee, and Emanuella Grinberg. 2017. “Trump Administration Withdraws Federal Protections for Transgender Students.” CNN, February 22, 2017.

Delazari, Tais, Rachel Goor, Val Healy, Emilie Reiser, and Maya Wagoner. 2016. Vida Verde: Streamlining Workflows. Civic Media Collaborative Design Studio. Cambridge, MA: MIT.

Della Porta, Donatella, and Herbert Reiter Reiter, eds. 1998. Policing Protest: The Control of Mass Demonstrations in Western Democracies. Vol. 6. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Design Studio for Social Intervention. 2013. Upham’s Corner Input Collector. Civic Media Collaborative Design Studio. Cambridge, MA: MIT.

DeTar, Charles Frederick. 2013a. “Hackathons Don’t Solve Problems.” Civic Media (blog), May 16, 2013.

DeTar, Charles Frederick. 2013b. “InterTwinkles: Online Tools for Non-hierarchical, Consensus-Oriented Decision Making.” PhD diss., Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Detention Watch Network. n.d. “Family Detention.” Detention Watch Network. Accessed August 25, 2018.

Detroit Digital Justice Coalition. 2012. “DiscoTechs UNITE! Part 1.” In AMC 2012 program, 52.

Detroit Digital Justice Coalition. 2012. DiscoTech zine, no. 4 (July).

Dewey, John. 1933. How We Think: A Restatement of the Relation of Reflective Thinking to the Educative Process. Vol. 8. Lexington, MA: Heath & Co. Publishers.

Dichter, Aliza. 2004. “From Porto Alegre to Cyberspace.” Email, August 5, 2004.

Ding, Dan, Rory A. Cooper, and Jon Pearlman. 2007. “Incorporating Participatory Action Design into Research and Education.” Paper presented at the International Conference on Engineering Education, Coimbra, Portugal, September 3–7, 2007.

DiSalvo, Carl. 2012. Adversarial Design. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

DiSalvo, Carl, and Jonathan Lukens. 2009. “Towards a Critical Technological Fluency: The Confluence of Speculative Design and Community Technology Programs.” Paper presented at Digital Arts and Culture, Irvine, CA, December 12–15, 2009.

Dizikes, Peter. 2014. “By Any Media Necessary.” MIT News, November 25, 2014.

Dourish, Paul. 2010. “HCI and Environmental Sustainability: The Politics of Design and the Design of Politics.” In Proceedings of the 8th ACM Conference on Designing Interactive Systems, 1–10. New York: ACM.

Downing, John D. H. 2000. Radical Media: Rebellious Communication and Social Movements. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Downing, John D. H. 2003. “The Independent Media Center Movement and the Anarchist Socialist Tradition.” In Contesting Media Power: Alternative Media in a Networked World, edited by Nick Couldry and James Curran, 243–257. Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield.

Du Bois, William Edward Burghardt. 1903. The Talented Tenth. New York: James Pott and Company.

Du Bois, William Edward Burghardt. 1932. “Education and Work.” Journal of Negro Education 1, no. 1 (April): 60–74.

Dunbar-Hester, Christina. 2014. “Feminists, Geeks and Geek Feminists: Understanding Gender and Power in Technological Activism.” UPenn talk at Media Activism Symposium, December 5, 2014.

Dunbar-Hester, Christina. 2017. “Feminists, Geeks, and Geek Feminists: Understanding Gender and Power in Technological Activism.” In Media Activism in the Digital Age, edited by Victor Pickard and Guobin Yang, 187–204. Abingdon, UK: Routledge.

Duncan, Lucia, Ashwin Balakrishnan, Carrie Liang, Qian Long, Courtney Supple, Alex DeStefano, C. J. Mayo, et al. 2013. The Flying Z Streaming Radio Player. Civic Media Collaborative Design Studio. Cambridge, MA: MIT.

Dunn, Christine E. 2007. “Participatory GIS: A People’s GIS?” Progress in Human Geography 31, no. 5: 616–637.

Duong, Paloma. 2013. “Bloggers Unplugged: Amateur Citizens, Cultural Discourse, and Public Sphere in Cuba.” Journal of Latin American Cultural Studies 22, no. 4: 375–397.

Durham, Aisha S. 2014. Home with Hip Hop Feminism: Performances in Communication and Culture (Intersections in Communications and Culture). New York: Peter Lang Publishing Group.

Durham, Aisha, Brittney C. Cooper, and Susana M. Morris. 2013. “The Stage Hip-Hop Feminism Built: A New Directions Essay.” Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 38, no. 3: 721–737.

Dyer, Jeff, Hal Gregersen, and Clayton M. Christensen. 2011. The Innovator’s DNA: Mastering the Five Skills of Disruptive Innovators. Brighton, MA: Harvard Business Press.

Dyer-Witheford, Nick. 1999. Cyber-Marx: Cycles and Circuits of Struggle in High-Technology Capitalism. Champaign: University of Illinois Press.

Dyer-Witheford, Nick. 2016. “Cybernetics and the Making of a Global Proletariat.” Political Economy of Communication 4, no. 1.

Eagly, Alice. 2017. “Does Biology Explain Why Men Outnumber Women in Tech?” Conversation, August 15, 2017.

Economist online. 2012. “Flushed with Pride.” Economist, August 15, 2012.

Eglash, Ron. 2004. “Appropriating Technology: An Introduction.” In Appropriating Technology: Vernacular Science and Social Power, edited by Ron Eglash, Jennifer L. Croissant, Giovanna Di Chiro, and Rayvon Fouché, vii–xxi. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

ElBaradei, Mohamed. 2003. “The Status of Nuclear Inspections in Iraq: An Update.” International Atomic Energy Agency, March 7, 2003.

Ellcessor, Elizabeth. 2016. Restricted Access: Media, Disability, and the Politics of Participation. New York: NYU Press.

EquityXDesign. 2016. “Racism and inequity are products of design. They can be redesigned.” Equity Design (blog), November 15, 2016.

Escobar, Arturo. 2012. “Notes on the Ontology of Design.” Sawyer Seminar, Indigenous Cosmopolitics: Dialogues about the Reconstitution of Worlds, organized by Marisol de La Cadena and Mario Blaser, October 2012.

Escobar, Arturo. 2018. Designs for the Pluriverse: Radical Interdependence, Autonomy, and the Making of Worlds. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Eubanks, Virginia. 2018. Automating Inequality: How High-Tech Tools Profile, Police, and Punish the Poor. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

Fals-Borda, Orlando. 1987. “The Application of Participatory Action Research in Latin America.” International Sociology 2, no. 4 (December): 329–347.

Federici, Silvia. 2004. Caliban and the Witch. New York: Autonomedia.

Federici, Silvia. 2012. Revolution at Point Zero: Housework, Reproduction, and Feminist Struggle. New York: PM Press.

Fernandes, Sujatha. 2010. Who Can Stop the Drums? Urban Social Movements in Chávez’s Venezuela. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2010.

Fernandez, Maria, Yorman Nunez, Nushelle Silva, Daniel Wang, and Elizabeth Cho. 2014. Urban Youth Collaborative SMS Survey Initiative. Civic Media Collaborative Design Studio. Cambridge, MA: MIT.

Ferrucci, Patrick, Heather Shoenberger, and Erin Schauster. 2014. “It’s a Mad, Mad, Mad, Ad World: A Feminist Critique of Mad Men.” Women’s Studies International Forum 47, pt. A (November–December): 93–101.

Flanagan, Mary, Daniel C. Howe, and Helen Nissenbaum. 2008. “Embodying Values in Technology: Theory and Practice.” In Information Technology and Moral Philosophy, edited by J. Van den Hoven and J. Weckert, 322–353. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Flores, Alfinio. 2007. “Examining Disparities in Mathematics Education: Achievement Gap or Opportunity Gap?” High School Journal 91, no. 1: 29–42.

Floridi, Luciano. 2014. The Fourth Revolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Flower, Ashley, Matthew K. Burns, and Nicole A. Bottsford-Miller. 2007. “Meta-analysis of Disability Simulation Research.” Remedial and Special Education, 28, no. 2: 72–79.

Flyvbjerg, Bent. 2005. “Design by Deception: The Politics of Megaproject Approval.” Harvard Design Magazine 22 (Spring/Summer): 50–59.

Forsythe, Michael, and Walt Bogdanich. 2018. “McKinsey Ends Work with ICE amid Furor over Immigration Policy.” New York Times, July 9, 2018.

Fox, Sarah, Rachel Rose Ulgado, and Daniela Rosner. 2015. “Hacking Culture, Not Devices: Access and Recognition in Feminist Hackerspaces.” In Proceedings of the 18th ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work & Social Computing, 56–68. New York: ACM.

Frank, Robert. 2016. Success and Luck: Good Fortune and the Myth of Meritocracy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Freeman, Jo. 1972. “The Tyranny of Structurelessness.” Second Wave 2, no. 1.

Freire, Paulo. 1972. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. Translated by Myra Bergman Ramos. Freiburg, Germany: Herder and Herder.

Friedman, Batya, ed. 1997. Human Values and the Design of Computer Technology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Friedman, Batya, Peter Kahn, and Alan Borning. 2002. Value Sensitive Design: Theory and Methods. UW CSE Technical Report 02-12-01. Seattle: University of Washington.

Friedman, Batya, Peter Kahn, Alan Borning, and Alina Huldtgren. 2013. “Value Sensitive Design and Information Systems.” In Early Engagement and New Technologies: Opening Up the Laboratory, edited by Neelke Doorn, Daan Schuurbiers, Ibo van de Poel, and Michael E. Gorman, 55–95. New York: Springer.

Friedman, Batya, and Helen Nissenbaum. 1996. “Bias in Computer Systems.” ACM Transactions on Information Systems 14, no. 3: 330–347.

Friedman, Batya, and Helen Nissenbaum. 1997. “Bias in Computer Systems.” In Human Values and the Design of Computer Technology, edited by Batya Friedman, 21–40. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Friedman, Batya, and David G Hendry. 2019. Value Sensitive Design: Shaping Technology with Moral Imagination. Cambridge/London: MIT Press.

Fry, Tony. 2010. Design as Politics. Oxford and New York: Berg.

Fuentes, Agustin. 2017. “The “Google Manifesto”: Bad Biology, Ignorance of Evolutionary Processes, and Privilege.” PLOS SciComm Blog (blog), August 14, 2017.

Fung, Archon, and Erik Olin Wright. 2001. “Deepening Democracy: Innovations in Empowered Participatory Governance.” Politics & Society 29, no. 1: 5–41.

Furness, Zack. 2007. “Critical Mass, Urban Space and Vélomobility.” Mobilities 2, no. 2: 299–319.

Gallagher, Ryan. 2018. “Google Struggles to Contain Employee Uproar Over China Censorship Plans.” Intercept, August 3, 2018.

Gamson, William A., and Gadi Wolfsfeld. 1993. “Movements and Media as Interacting Systems.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 528, no. 1: 114–125.

Gardner, Sue. n.d. “Why Women Leave Tech: What the Research Says.” Accessed September 24, 2018. Google doc available at ().

Gates Foundation. n.d. “Reinvent the Toilet: Strategy Overview.”

Gaver, William W. 1991. “Technology Affordances.” In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 79–84. New York: ACM.

Gehl, Robert W. 2015. “The Case for Alternative Social Media.” Social Media + Society 1 (2).

Gerbaudo, Paolo. 2012. Tweets and the Streets: Social Media and Contemporary Activism. London: Pluto Press.

Gershenfeld, Neil. 2008. Fab: The Coming Revolution on Your Desktop—from Personal Computers to Personal Fabrication. New York: Basic Books.

Gershenfeld, Neil, Alan Gershenfeld, and Joel Cutcher-Gershenfeld. 2017. Designing Reality: How to Survive and Thrive in the Third Digital Revolution. New York: Basic Books.

Gibson, James J. 1979. The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Gillespie, Tarleton. 2018. Custodians of the Internet: Platforms, Content Moderation, and the Hidden Decisions That Shape Social Media. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Gilpin, Robert. 2015. American Scientists and Nuclear Weapons Policy. Vol. 2064. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Godz, Polina. 2018. “Tech Workers versus the Pentagon.” Jacobin Magazine, June 6, 2018.

Goggin, Gerard, and Christopher Newell. 2003. Digital Disability: The Social Construction of Disability in New Media. Lanham, MD: Roman & Littlefield.

Goldschmidt, Gabriela. 2003. “Expert Knowledge or Creative Spark? Predicaments in Design Education.” Paper presented at Design Thinking Research Symposium 6, Expertise in Design, Sydney, Australia, November 17–19, 2003.

Gomez-Marquez, Jose. 2015. “Our New Project: MakerNurse.” MIT Little Devices Lab, October 13, 2015.

Gomez-Marquez, Jose, and Anna Young. 2016. “A History of Nurse Making and Stealth Innovation.” MIT Little Devices Lab, May 11, 2016.

González, Juan, and Joseph Torres. 2011. News for All the People: The Epic Story of Race and the American Media. London: Verso Books.

Goodman, Bryce, and Seth Flaxman. 2016. “European Union Regulations on Algorithmic Decision-Making and a ‘Right to Explanation.’” AI Magazine 38, no. 3: 2017. arXiv preprint at

Google. 2014. “Women Who Choose Computer Science—What Really Matters: The Critical Role of Encouragement and Exposure.” Google for Education, May 26, 2014.

Gordon, Eric, and Stephen Walter. 2015. “The Good User/Citizen: Innovation, Technology, and Governmentality.” The Companion to American Urbanism, ed Joseph Healthcott. New York: Routledge.

Gray, Kishonna L. 2012. “Intersecting Oppressions and Online Communities: Examining the Experiences of Women of Color in Xbox Live.” Information, Communication & Society 15, no. 3: 411–428.

Gray, Kishonna. 2015. “#CiteHerWork: Marginalizing Women in Academic and Journalistic Writing.”, December 28, 2015.

Gray, Mary L., and Siddharth Suri. 2019. Ghost Work: How to Stop Silicon Valley from Building a New Global Underclass. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.

Green, Ben. 2019. The Smart Enough City: Putting Technology in Its Place to Reclaim Our Urban Future. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Gregory, Judith. 2003. “Scandinavian Approaches to Participatory Design.” International Journal of Engineering Education 19, no. 1: 62–74.

Grenzfurthner, Johannes, and Frank Apunkt Schneider. n.d. “Hacking the Spaces.” Monochrom

Guo, Frank Y., Sanjay Shamdasani, and Bruce Randall. 2011. “Creating Effective Personas for Product Design: Insights from a Case Study.” In Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Internationalization, Design and Global Development, 37–46. Heidelberg and Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Gupta, Anil K. 2006. “From Sink to Source: The Honey Bee Network Documents Indigenous Knowledge and Innovations in India.” Innovations: Technology, Governance, Globalization 1, no. 3: 49–66.

Haimson, Oliver L., and Anna Lauren Hoffmann. 2016. “Constructing and Enforcing ‘Authentic’ Identity Online: Facebook, Real Names, and Non-normative Identities.” First Monday 21, no. 6.

Halberstam, Jack. 2018. Trans*: A Quick and Quirky Account of Gender Variability. Oakland: University of California Press.

Halleck, DeeDee. 2002. Hand-Held Visions: The Impossible Possibilities of Community Media. New York: Fordham University Press.

Halleck, DeeDee. 2003. “Indymedia: Building an International Activist Internet Network.” Media Development 50, no. 4: 11–14.

Halliwell, Stephen. 1986. Aristotle’s Poetics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Hamilton, Margaret, Andrew Luxton-Reilly, Naomi Augar, Vanea Chiprianov, Eveling Castro Gutierrez, Elizabeth Vidal Duarte, Helen H. Hu, et al. 2016. “Gender Equity in Computing: International Faculty Perceptions and Current Practices.” In Proceedings of the 2016 ITiCSE Working Group Reports, 81–102. New York: ACM.

Hamraie, Aimi. 2013. “Designing Collective Access: A Feminist Disability Theory of Universal Design.” Disability Studies Quarterly 33:1041–5718.

Hamraie, Aimi. 2017. Building Access: Universal Design and the Politics of Disability. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Hankerson, David, et al. 2016. “Does Technology Have Race?” In Proceedings of the 2016 CHI Conference Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems. New York: ACM.

Hanna-Attisha, Mona, Jenny LaChance, Richard Casey Sadler, and Allison Champney Schnepp. 2016. “Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Children Associated with the Flint Drinking Water Crisis: A Spatial Analysis of Risk and Public Health Response.” American Journal of Public Health 106, no. 2: 283–290.

Harding, Sandra G., ed. 2004. The Feminist Standpoint Theory Reader: Intellectual and Political Controversies. New York: Routledge.

Hare, Kristen. 2013. “Migrahack Brings Together Journalists, Programmers and Community.” Poynter, December 24, 2013.

Harkinson, Josh. 2014. “Silicon Valley Firms Are Even Whiter and More Male Than You Thought.” Mother Jones (May 29, 2014).

Harrell, D. Fox. 2013. Phantasmal Media: An Approach to Imagination, Computation, and Expression. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Harvey, David. 2008. “The Right to the City.” City Reader 6:23–40.

Harwell, Drew, and Nick Miroff. 2018. “ICE Just Abandoned Its Dream of ‘Extreme Vetting’ Software That Could Predict Whether a Foreign Visitor Would Become a Terrorist,” Washington Post, May 17, 2018. https://www.washingtonpost. com/news/the-switch/wp/2018/05/17/ice-just-abandoned-its-dream-ofextreme-vetting-software-that-could-predict-whether-a-foreign-visitorwould-become-a-terrorist.

Henderson, Ingrid, Kwabena Ofori-Atta, Lucky Bommireddy, Natali Espitia, and Tabia Smith. 2017. Peas in a Podcast: East Boston Voices. Civic Media Collaborative Design Studio. Cambridge, MA: MIT.

Henriques, Julian. 2011. Sonic Bodies: Reggae Sound Systems, Performance Techniques, and Ways of Knowing. New York: Bloomsbury Publishing USA.

Henry, Liz. 2014. “The Rise of Feminist Hackerspaces and How to Make Your Own.” Model View Culture, February 3, 2014.

Hernández-Ramírez, Rodrigo. 2018. “On Design Thinking, Bullshit, and Innovation.” Journal of Science and Technology of the Arts 10, no. 3: 2–45.

Herring, Cedric. 2009. “Does Diversity Pay? Race, Gender, and the Business Case for Diversity.” American Sociological Review 74, no. 2: 208–224.

Hicks, Marie. 2017. Programmed Inequality: How Britain Discarded Women Technologists and Lost Its Edge in Computing. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Hielscher, Sabine. 2015. Fab Lab Amersfoort, De War: An Innovation History. January 2015. Centre on Innovation and Energy Demand.

Highlander Research and Education Center. 1997. A Very Popular Economic Education Sampler. Highlander Research and Education Center.

Hirsch, Tad. 2008. Contestational Design: Innovation for Political Design. PhD diss., Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Hirsch, Tad. 2013. “TXTmob and Twitter: A Reply to Nick Bilton.” Public Practice Studio, October 16, 2013. Archived at

Hobbs R., ed. 2016. Exploring the Roots of Digital and Media Literacy through Personal Narrative. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Hoffmann, Anna Lauren. 2019. “Where Fairness Fails: Data, Algorithms, and the Limits of Antidiscrimination Discourse.” Information, Communication & Society 22, no. 7: 900–915.

Hoffman, Robert R., Axel Roesler, and Brian M. Moon. 2004. “What Is Design in the Context of Human-Centered Computing?” IEEE Intelligent Systems 19, no. 4: 89–95.

Holman, Will. 2015. “Makerspace: Towards a New Civic Infrastructure.” Places Journal, November 2015.

Holmes, Kat. 2018. Mismatch: How Inclusion Shapes Design. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

hooks, bell. 1994. Teaching to Transgress: Education as the Practice of Freedom. New York: Routledge.

Huff, Charles, and Joel Cooper. 1987. “Sex Bias in Educational Software: The Effects of Designers’ Stereotypes on the Software They Design.” Journal of Applied Social Psychology 17, no. 6: 519–532.

Human Rights Watch. 2018. “Code Red: Fatal Consequences of Dangerously Substandard Medical Care in Immigration Detention.” Human Rights Watch, June 20, 2018.

Hunt, Vivian, Dennis Layton, and Sara Prince. 2015. “Why Diversity Matters.” McKinsey & Company, January 2015.

Hurley, Amanda Kolson. 2018. “Should Designers Try to Reform Immigrant Detention?” CityLab, July 30, 2018.

Hurn, Karl, Diane Gyi, and Paul Mackareth. 2014. “Reinventing the Toilet: Academic Research Meets Design Practice in the Pursuit of an Effective Sanitation Solution for All.” Paper presented at the Industrial Design Society of America Annual International Conference, Austin, TX, August 2014.

Ihde, Don. 1990. Technology and the Lifeworld: From Garden to Earth. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Inclusive Design Research Center. n.d. “What Do We Mean by Inclusive Design?” Inclusive Design Research Center. Accessed January 14, 2018.

Irani, Lilly. 2015. “Hackathons and the Making of Entrepreneurial Citizenship.” Science, Technology, & Human Values 40, no. 5: 799–824.

Irani, Lilly. 2016. “The Hidden Faces of Automation.” XRDS: Crossroads, the ACM Magazine for Students 23, no. 2: 34–37.

Irani, Lilly. 2018. “Design Thinking: Defending Silicon Valley at the Apex of Global Labor Hierarchies.” Catalyst: Feminism, Theory, Technoscience 4, no. 1.

Irani, Lilly. 2019. Chasing Innovation: Making Entrepreneurial Citizens in Modern India. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2019.

Irani, Lilly, Janet Vertesi, Paul Dourish, Kavita Philip, and Rebecca E. Grinter. 2010. “Postcolonial Computing: A Lens on Design and Development.” In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 1311–1320. New York: ACM.

Ito, Joichi. 2017. “Resisting Reduction: A Manifesto.” Journal of Design and Science, last updated December 2, 2018.

Ito, Mizuko, Sonja Baumer, Matteo Bittanti, danah boyd, Rachel Cody, Becky Herr Stephenson, Heather A. Horst, et al. 2009. Hanging Out, Messing Around, and Geeking Out: Kids Living and Learning with New Media. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Ito, Mizuko, and Justin Reich. 2017. From Good Intentions to Real Outcomes: Three Myths about Education Technology and Equity. Irvine, CA: Digital Media and Learning Research Hub.

Jackson, Sarah, Moya Bailey, and Brooke Foucault Welles. 2019. #Hashtag Activism: Race and Gender in America’s Networked Counterpublics. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Jencks, Christopher. “Racial Bias in Testing.” 1998. In The Black-White Test Score Gap, edited by C. Jencks and M. Phillips, 55–85. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.

Jenkins, Henry, Sangita Shresthova, Liana Gamber-Thompson, Neta Kligler-Vilenchik, and Arely Zimmerman. 2016. By Any Media Necessary: The New Youth Activism. New York: NYU Press.

Jobin-Leeds, Greg, and AgitArte, eds. 2016. When We Fight We Win! New York: New Press.

Johnson, Stefanie. 2017. “What the Science Actually Says About Gender Gaps in the Workplace.” Harvard Business Review

Kafer, Alison. 2013. Feminist, queer, crip. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Khalil, Deena, and Meredith Kier. 2017. “Critical Race Design: An Emerging Methodological Approach to Anti-racist Design and Implementation Research.” International Journal of Adult Vocational Education and Technology (IJAVET) 8, no. 2 (2017): 54–71.

Kumanyika, Chenjerai. 2016. “Livestreaming in the Black Lives Matter Network.” In DIY Utopia: Cultural Imagination and the Remaking of the Possible, edited by Amber Day, 169–188. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.

Kwate, Naa Oyo A., and Ilan H. Meyer. 2010. “The Myth of Meritocracy and African American Health.” American Journal of Public Health 100, no. 10: 1831–1834.

Lee, Julia. 2016. “Alarming TSA.” The Fourth Wave, February 3, 2016.

Lee, Una, Nontsikelelo Mutiti, Carlos Garcia, and Wes Taylor, eds. 2016. Principles for Design Justice. Design Justice Zine, no. 1. Detroit: Design Justice Network.

Lee, Victor R., and Abigail Phillips, eds. 2018. Reconceptualizing Libraries: Perspectives from the Information and Learning Sciences. New York: Routledge.

Levitt, Janna. 2017. “Dori Tunstall Wants to Decolonize Design Education.” Azure Magazine, November 1, 2017.

Lewin, Kurt. 1946. “Action Research and Minority Problems.” Journal of Social Issues 2, no. 4: 34–46.

Lewis, Jason Edward, Noelani Arista, Archer Pechawis, and Suzanne Kite. 2018. “Making Kin with the Machines.” Journal of Design and Science, July 16, 2018.

Leyba, Mike, Terry Marshall, Nene Igietseme, Dara Yaskil, CL/VU Boston Met Region Bank Tenant Association Leadership Team, Ed Cabrera, and Triana Kazaleh Sirdenis. 2013. City Life/Vida Urbana’s Carnival Toolkit Co-Design Process Case Study. Civic Media Collaborative Design Studio. Cambridge, MA: MIT.

Lin, Gloria. 2016. “Masculinity and Machinery: Analysis of Care Practices, Social Climate and Marginalization at Hackathons.” Model View Culture, December 15, 2016.

Locke, John. 2014. Second Treatise of Government: An Essay Concerning the True Original, Extent and End of Civil Government. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons.

Lombana Bermúdez, Andrés. 2018. “Economía digital, cultura maker, y nuevas formas de creación de valor.” In Jóvenes, transformación digital y formas de inclusión en América Latina, edited by Cristóbal Cobo et al., 357–361. Montevideo, Uruguay: Penguin Random House.

Long, Frank. 2009. “Real or Imaginary: The Effectiveness of Using Personas in Product Design.” In Proceedings of the Irish Ergonomics Society Annual Conference. May 2009, 1–10. Dublin: Irish Ergonomics Society.

Lopez, Alfredo, Jamie McClelland, Eric Goldhagen, Daniel Gillmor, and Amanda B. Hickman. 2007. The Organic Internet: Organizing History’s Largest Social Movement. Entremundos Publications.

Lorde, Audre. 1984. “The Master’s Tools Will Never Dismantle the Master’s House.” In Sister Outsider, 110–114. Berkeley, CA: Crossing Press.

Lorica, Ben. 2018. “We Need to Build Machine Learning Tools to Augment Machine Learning Engineers.” O’Reilly, January 11, 2018.

Lu, Tiffany, Paulina Haduong, Eva Galperin, Jillian York, Hugh D’Andrade, Mark Burdett, and Alvaro Gil. 2014. Surveillance Self Defense. Civic Media Collaborative Design Studio. Cambridge, MA: MIT.

Luo, Lauren. 2018. “#TechWontBuildIt: A Comprehensive Investigation of Key Movement Activity and Organizing Tactics.” Networked Social Movements: Media & Mobilization (CMS.361 course blog), December 18, 2018. Cambridge, MA: MIT.

Lyons, Matthew, Its Going Down, and Bromma. 2017. Ctrl-Alt-Delete: An Antifascist Report on the Alternative Right. Montreal: Kersplebedeb Publishing.

Manders-Huits, Noemi. 2011. “What Values in Design? The Challenge of Incorporating Moral Values into Design.” Science and Engineering Ethics 17, no. 2 (June): 271–287.

Margolin, Victor. 1996. “Teaching Design History.” Statements 11, no. 2: 5–14.

Margolin, Victor. 2006. The Idea of Design. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Mathie, Alison, and Gord Cunningham. 2003. “From Clients to Citizens: Asset-Based Community Development as a Strategy for Community-Driven Development.” Development in Practice 13, no. 5: 474–486.

Matias, J. Nathan. 2012. “Designing Acknowledgment on the Web.” MIT Center for Civic Media, November 1, 2012.

Mawson, Brent. 2003. “Beyond ‘The Design Process’: An Alternative Pedagogy for Technology Education.” International Journal of Technology & Design Education 13, no. 2 (May): 117–128.

Maxigas, Peter. 2012. “Hacklabs and Hackerspaces: Tracing Two Genealogies.” Journal of Peer Production, no. 2.

Mayo, Peter. 1999. Gramsci, Freire and Adult Education: Possibilities for Transformative Action. London: Zed Books.

McCann, Laurenellen. 2015. Experimental Modes of Civic Engagement in Civic Tech: Meeting People Where They Are. Chicago: Smart Chicago Collaborative.

McDowell, Ceasar, and Melissa Y. Chinchilla. 2016. “Partnering with Communities and Institutions.” In Civic Media: Technology, Design, Practice, edited by Eric Gordon and Paul Mihailidis, 461–480. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

McGregor, Stella, Risa Horn, Peter Kirschmann, Eve Ewing, Sofia Campos, Saul Tannenbaum, Emily Yang, et al. 2013. The Emancipated City: Reimagining Boston (Urban Myths and the Dream Machine). Civic Media Collaborative Design Studio. Cambridge, MA: MIT.

Melendez, Steven. 2014. “Contratados: A Yelp to Help Migrant Workers Fight Fraud.” Fast Company, October 9, 2014.

Merton, Robert K. 1968. “Continuities in the Theory of Social Structure and Anomie.” In Social Theory and Social Structure, 215–248. New York: Free Press.

Metz, Cade. 2016. “Forget Apple vs. the FBI: WhatsApp Just Switched on Encryption for a Billion People.” Wired, April 5, 2016.

Mihal, Ivana Julieta. 2014. “Inclusión digital y gestión cultural en el Mercosur: el Programa Puntos de Cultura.”

Mikhak, Bakhtiar, Christopher Lyon, Tim Gorton, Neil Gershenfeld, Caroline McEnnis, and Jason Taylor. 2002. “Fab Lab: An Alternate Model of ICT for Development.” In 2nd International Conference on Open Collaborative Design for Sustainable Innovation, pp. 1–7.

Milan, Stefania. 2013. Social Movements and Their Technologies: Wiring Social Change. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Mill, John Stuart. 1869. On Liberty. Longmans, Green, Reader, and Dyer.

Miller, Meg. 2017. “AirBnB Debuts a Toolkit for Inclusive Design.” Fast Company, August 1, 2017.

Mills, Charles W. 2015. “Race and Global Justice.” In Domination and Global Political Justice, edited by Barbara Buckinx, Jonathan Trejo-Mathys, and Timothy Waligore, 193–217. New York: Routledge.

Miner, Adam S., Arnold Milstein, Stephen Schueller, Roshini Hegde, Christina Mangurian, and Eleni Linos. 2016. “Smartphone-Based Conversational Agents and Responses to Questions about Mental Health, Interpersonal Violence, and Physical Health.” JAMA Internal Medicine 176, no. 5: 619–625.

Mohammad, Insiyah, Jason Ma, Husayn Karimi, Lor Holmes, Ben Melançon, and Maya Gaul. 2016. CERO: Experiments in Marketing and Sales. Civic Media Collaborative Design Studio. Cambridge, MA: MIT.

Mohanty, Chandra Talpade. 2013. “Transnational Feminist Crossings: On Neoliberalism and Radical Critique.” Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 38, no. 4: 967–991.

Molteni, Megan, and Adam Rogers. 2017. “The Actual Science of James Damore’s Google Memo.” Wired, August 15, 2017.

Moore, Kelly. 2009. Disrupting Science: Social Movements, American Scientists, and the Politics of the Military, 1945–1975. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Mouzannar, Hussein, Mesrob I. Ohannessian, and Nathan Srebro. 2019. From Fair Decision Making to Social Equality. In Proceedings of the Conference on Fairness, Accountability, and Transparency (FAT* ’19), 359–368. New York: ACM.

Muller, Michael J. 2003. “Participatory Design: The Third Space in HCI.” Human-Computer Interaction: Development Process 4235:165–185.

Muñoz, Cecilia, Megan Smith, and D. J. Patil. 2016. Big Data: A Report on Algorithmic Systems, Opportunity, and Civil Rights. Executive Office of the President, May 2016.

National Center for Women & Information Technology. 2018. NCWIT’s Women in IT: By the Numbers. NCWIT, April 9, 2018.

Nelson, Alondra, Thuy Linh Nguyen Tu, and Alicia Headlam Hines, eds. 2001. Technicolor: Race, Technology, and Everyday Life. New York: NYU Press.

Neuhart, John, Charles Eames, Ray Eames, and Marilyn Neuhart. 1989. Eames Design: The Work of the Office of Charles and Ray Eames. New York: Harry N. Abrams. Translated by José M. Allard S.

New York Civil Liberties Union. 2014. “Victory in Unlawful Mass Arrest during 2004 RNC the Largest Protest Settlement in History.” New York Civil Liberties Union, January 15, 2014.

Nielsen, Lene. 2012. Personas: User Focused Design. London: Springer Science & Business Media.

Noble, Safiya Umoja. 2018. Algorithms of Oppression: How Search Engines Reinforce Racism. New York: NYU Press.

Norman, Donald A. 2006. The Design of Everyday Things. New York: Basic Books.

Norman, Donald A., and Stephen W. Draper. 1986. User Centered System Design: New Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.

Nucera, Diana, Janel Yamishiro, Nina Bianchi, Andy Gunn, and Sasha Costanza-Chock. 2012. “Media-A-Go-Go Hands-on Technology Practice Space.” Allied Media Conference 2012 program, 19. Detroit: Allied Media Projects.

Obama, Barack. 2016. “Giving Every Student an Opportunity to Learn through Computer Science for All.” Office of the Press Secretary, January 30, 2016.

O’Neil, Daniel X. 2013. “Building a Smarter Chicago.” In Beyond Transparency: Open Data and the Future of Civic Innovation, edited by Brett Goldstein and Lauren Dyson, 27–38. San Francisco: Code for America Press.

O’Neil, Daniel X. 2016. “An Education in Civic Technology.” Civicist, June 1, 2016.

Open MIC. 2017. Breaking the Mold: Investing in Racial Diversity in Tech. Open MIC, February 2017.

Oliver, Mike. 2013. “The Social Model of Disability: Thirty Years On.”Disability & Society 28, no. 7: 1024–1026.

Oremus, Will. 2014. “Here Are All the Different Genders You Can Be on Facebook.” Slate, February 13, 2014.

Oudshoorn, Nelly, Els Rommes, and Marcelle Stienstra. 2004. “Configuring the User as Everybody: Gender and Design Cultures in Information and Communication Technologies.” Science, Technology, & Human Values 29, no. 1: 30–63.

Palfrey, John. 2015. BiblioTech: Why Libraries Matter More than Ever in the Age of Google. New York: Basic Books.

Pant, Anupum. 2015. “Racist Sinks.” AweSci-Science Everyday, September 6, 2015.

Papanek, Victor. 1974. Design for the Real World. St. Albans: Paladin.

Papert, Seymour, and Idit Harel. 1991. “Situating Constructionism.” Constructionism 36, no. 2: 1–11.

Partridge, Christopher. 2010. Dub in Babylon: Understanding the Evolution and Significance of Dub Reggae in Jamaica and Britain from King Tubby to Post-Punk. London: Equinox Publishing.

Patel, Raj. 2009. “Food Sovereignty.” Journal of Peasant Studies 36, no. 3: 663–706.

Paul, Kari. 2016. “Microsoft Had to Suspend Its AI Chatbot After It Veered into White Supremacy.” Motherboard, March 24, 2016.

Penny, Laurie. 2014. “A Tale of Two Cities: How San Francisco’s Tech Boom Is Widening the Gap between Rich and Poor.” New Statesman, April 9, 2014.

Piepzna-Samarasinha, Leah Lakshmi. 2018. Care Work: Dreaming Disability Justice. Vancouver: Arsenal Pulp Press.

Polanyi, Michael. 1958. Personal Knowledge: Towards a Post-Critical Philosophy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Prasad, Urvashi. 2012. “Will Reinventing the Toilet Solve the Global Sanitation Crisis?” Michael & Susan Dell Foundation (blog), June 21, 2012.

Prashad, Vijay. 2013. The Poorer Nations: A Possible History of the Global South. London: Verso Books.

Purao, Sandeep, John Bagby, and Karthikeyan Umapathy. 2008. “Standardizing Web Services: Overcoming ‘Design by Committee.’” In 2008 IEEE Congress on Services: Part I, 223–230. IEEE.

Pursell, Carroll. 1993. “The Rise and Fall of the Appropriate Technology Movement in the United States, 1965–1985.” Technology and Culture 34, no. 3 (July): 629–637.

Racin, Liat, and Eric Gordon. 2018. “Community-Academic Partnerships: The Limitations of Collaborative Research and Overcoming Challenges.” Boston Civic Media Consortium.

Raji, Deborah, and Joy Buolamwini. 2019. “Actionable Auditing: Investigating the Impact of Publicly Naming Biased Performance Results of Commercial AI Products.” Paper presented at the AAAI/ACM Conference on AI Ethics and Society, Honolulu, HI, January 27–28, 2019.

Raymond, Eric. 1999. “The Cathedral and the Bazaar.” Knowledge, Technology & Policy 12, no. 3: 23–49.

Reich, Justin, and Mimi Ito. 2017. “From Good Intentions to Real Outcomes: Equity by Design in Learning Technologies.” DML Research Hub, October 30, 2017.

Reinecke, Katharina, and Abraham Bernstein. 2011. “Improving Performance, Perceived Usability, and Aesthetics with Culturally Adaptive User Interfaces.” ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI) 18, no. 2, article 8: 1–29. New York: ACM.

Renzi, Alessandra. 2015. “Info-Capitalism and Resistance: How Information Shapes Social Movements.” Interface: A Journal on Social Movements 7, no. 2: 98–119.

Resnick, Brian. 2017. “The March for Science Is Forcing Science to Reckon with Its Diversity Problem.” Vox, March 24, 2017.

Resnick, Mitchel. 2017. Lifelong Kindergarten: Cultivating Creativity through Projects, Passion, Peers, and Play. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Resnick, Mitchel, John Maloney, Andrés Monroy-Hernández, Natalie Rusk, Evelyn Eastmond, Karen Brennan, Amon Millner, et al. 2009. “Scratch: Programming for All.” Communications of the ACM 52, no. 11 (November): 60–67.

Resnick, Mitchell, and Natalie Rusk. 1996. “Computer Clubhouses in the Inner City: Access Is Not Enough.” American Prospect 7, no. 27: 60–68.

Resnick, Mitchell, Natalie Rusk, and Stina Cooke. 1998. “The Computer Clubhouse: Technological Fluency in the Inner City.” In High Technology and Low-Income Communities: Prospects for the Positive Use of Advanced Information Technology, edited by Donald Schön, Bishwapriya Sanyal, and William J. Mitchell, 263–285. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Rhode, Deborah L. 1991. Justice and Law. Brighton, MA: Harvard University Press.

Richard, Gabriela, Yasmin B. Kafai, Barrie Adleberg, and Orkan Telhan. 2015. “StitchFest: Diversifying a College Hackathon to Broaden Participation and Perceptions in Computing.” In SIGCSE 2015—Proceedings of the 46th ACM Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education, edited by Carl Alphonce, Adrienne Decker, Kurt Eiselt, and Jodi Tims, 114–119. New York: ACM.

Ries, Eric. 2011. The Lean Startup: How Today’s Entrepreneurs Use Continuous Innovation to Create Radically Successful Businesses. New York: Crown Business.

Riggs, William M., and Eric Von Hippel. 1994. “The Impact of Scientific and Commercial Values on the Sources of Scientific Instrument Innovation.” Research Policy 23, no. 4: 459–469.

Robinson, Pamela J., and Peter A. Johnson. 2016. “Civic Hackathons: New Terrain for Local Government-Citizen Interaction?” Urban Planning 1, no. 2: 65–74.

Rodriguez, Clemencia. 2001. Fissures in the Mediascape: An International Study of Citizens’ Media. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.

Rogers, Everett M. 1962. Diffusion of Innovations. Glencoe, IL: Free Press of Glencoe.

Rose, Tricia. 1994. Black Noise: Rap Music and Black Culture in Contemporary America. Vol. 6. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press.

Ross, Andrew, ed. 1997. No Sweat: Fashion, Free Trade, and the Rights of Garment Workers. London: Verso.

Ross, Joel, Lilly Irani, M. Six Silberman, Andrew Zaldivar, and Bill Tomlinson. 2010. “Who Are the Crowdworkers? Shifting Demographics in Mechanical Turk.” In CHI’10 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 2863–2872. New York: ACM.;jsessionid=B496D21FD15C84E81F1746CEA516017C?doi=

Roston, Michael. 2017. “The March for Science: Why Some Are Going, and Some Will Sit Out.” New York Times, April 17, 2017.

Routledge, Paul. 2003. “Convergence Space: Process Geographies of Grassroots Globalization Networks.” Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 28, no. 3: 333–349.

Rutkin, A. 2016. “Digital discrimination.” New Scientist 231, no. 3084: 18–19.

Sabelli, Nora. 2008. “Constructionism: A New Opportunity for Elementary Science Education.” DRL Division of Research on Learning in Formal and Informal Settings, 193–206.

Sadat, Leila Nadya. 2005. “Ghost Prisoners and Black Sites: Extraordinary Rendition under International Law.” Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law 37:309–342.

Sadedin, Suzanne. 2017. “A Scientist’s Take on the Biological Claims from the Infamous Google Anti-diversity Manifesto.” Forbes

Sanders, Elizabeth B-N., and Pieter Jan Stappers. 2008. “Co-creation and the New Landscapes of Design.” CoDesign 4, no. 1: 5–18.

Sanoff, Henry. 2008. “Multiple Views of Participatory Design.” International Journal of Architectural Research 2, no. 1: 57–69.

Santa Ana, Otto, Layza López, and Edgar Munguía. 2010. “Framing Peace as Violence: U.S. Television News Depictions of the 2007 Los Angeles Police Attack on Immigrant Rights Marchers.” Aztlán 35, no. 1: 69–101.

Schmider, Alex. 2016. “GLAAD Works with Tinder to Create Trans-Inclusive App Update.” GLAAD, November 14, 2016.

Schneier, Bruce. 2006. Beyond Fear: Thinking Sensibly about Security in an Uncertain World. New York: Springer Science & Business Media.

Scholz, Trebor, ed. 2013. Digital Labor: The Internet as Playground and Factory. New York: Routledge.

Scholz, Trebor, and Nathan Schneider, eds. 2016. Ours to Hack and to Own: The Rise of Platform Cooperativism, a New Vision for the Future of Work and a Fairer Internet. New York: OR Books.

Schön, D. A. 1983. The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think in Action. New York: Basic Books.

Schön, Donald A. 1987. Educating the Reflective Practitioner: Toward a New Design for Teaching and Learning in the Professions. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Schudson, Michael. 1998. The Good Citizen. New York: Free Press.

Schuler, Douglas, and Aki Namioka, eds. 1993. Participatory Design: Principles and Practices. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Schulz, Nick. 2006. “The Crappiest Invention of All Time: Why the Auto-Flushing Toilet Must Die.” Slate

Schumacher, Ernst Friedrich. 1999. Small Is Beautiful: Economics as If People Mattered; 25 Years Later … with Commentaries. Point Roberts, WA: Hartley & Marks.

Science for the People. 2018a. “Pickets at Microsoft to Support Workers’ Demand: End the ICE Contract!” Science for the People, June 25, 2018.

Science for the People. 2018b. “Science for the People Documentary.” YouTube, July 30, 2018.

Segarra, Lisa Marie. 2018. “More Than 20,000 Google Employees Participated in Walkout Over Sexual Harassment Policy.” Fortune, November 3, 2018.

Segarra, Lisa Marie, and David Johnson. 2017. “Find Out If President Trump Would Let You Immigrate to America.” TIME, August 7, 2017.

Shadduck-Hernández, Janna, Zacil Pech, Mar Martinez, and Marissa Nuncio. Dirty Threads, Dangerous Factories: Health and Safety in Los Angeles’ Fashion Industry. Garment Worker Center, December 2016.

Shah, Silky, Carly Perez, Sean Flynn, Pia Zaragoza, Chrislene DeJean, and Marcelo Nieves. 2014. Bedtime Stories: An Interactive Documentary about the Immigrant Detention System. Civic Media Collaborative Design Studio. Cambridge, MA: MIT.

Shepard, Benjamin, and Ronald Hayduk, eds. 2002. From ACT UP to the WTO: Urban Protest and Community Building in the Era of Globalization. London: Verso.

Shetterly, Margot Lee. 2017. Hidden Figures: The Untold Story of African-American Women Who Helped to Win the Space Race. New York: Harper Collins, 2017.

Sifry, Micah L. 2012. “From TXTMob to Twitter: How an Activist Tool Took Over the Conventions.” TechPresident, August 25, 2012.

Silbey, Jessica. 2014. The Eureka Myth: Creators, Innovators, and Everyday Intellectual Property. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Silbey, Susan S. 2018. “#MeToo at MIT: Harassment and Systemic Gender Subordination.” MIT Faculty Newsletter, January/February 2018.

Siles, Ignacio. 2013. “Inventing Twitter: An Iterative Approach to New Media Development.” International Journal of Communication 7:23.

Simon, Herbert A. 1996. The Sciences of the Artificial. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Skinner, David. 2006. “The Age of Female Computers.” New Atlantis 12 (Spring): 96–103.

Smith, Adrian, Adrian Ely, Mariano Fressoli, Dinesh Abrol, and Elisa Arond. 2016. Grassroots Innovation Movements. New York: Routledge.

Smith, Linda Tuhiwai. 2013. Decolonizing Methodologies: Research and Indigenous Peoples. London: Zed Books Ltd.

Smith, Matt, and Aura Bogado. 2018. “Immigrant Children Forcibly Injected with Drugs, Lawsuit Claims.” Reveal, June 20, 2018.

Smyth, Thomas, and Jill Dimond. 2014. “Anti-oppressive Design.” Interactions 21, no. 6: 68–71.

Soderberg, Johann. 2013. “Determining Social Change: The Role of Technological Determinism in the Collective Action Framing of Hackers.” New Media & Society 15, no. 8: 1277–1293.

Solorzano, Daniel, Miguel Ceja, and Tara Yosso. 2000. “Critical Race Theory, Racial Microaggressions, and Campus Racial Climate: The Experiences of African American College Students.” Journal of Negro Education 69, nos. 1–2 (Winter/Spring): 60–73.

Spelic, Sherri. 2018. “What If? And What’s Wrong? Design Thinking and Thinking about Design We Can’t Easily See.” Medium, January 14, 2018.

Spitzberg, Danny. 2016. “The Very First Oakland Co-op DiscoTech.” Medium, May 6, 2016.

Sreberny, Annabelle. 2004. “WSIS: Articulating Information at the Summit.” International Communication Gazette 66, nos. 3–4: 193–201.

Srinivasan, Ramesh. 2017. Whose Global Village? Rethinking How Technology Shapes Our World. New York: NYU Press.

Starr, Paul. 2004. The Creation of the Media: Political Origins of Modern Communications. New York: Basic Books.

Steen, Marc. 2011. “Tensions in Human-Centred Design.” CoDesign 7, no. 1: 45–60.

Steen, Marc. 2013. “Co-design as a Process of Joint Inquiry and Imagination.” Design Issues 29, no. 2 (Spring): 16–28.

Stevens, Sean, and Jonathan Haidt. 2017. “The Google Memo: What Does the Research Say About Gender Differences?” Heterodox Academy, August 10, 2017.

Story, Molly Follette. 2001. “Principles of Universal Design.” In Universal Design Handbook, edited by Wolfgang F. E. Preiser and Elaine Ostroff, 31–36. New York: McGraw-Hill Professional.

Subcomandante Marcos. 2000. “Zapatista Army of National Liberation Statement on the Kosovo War.” Left Curve 24:22.

Sue, Derald Wing. 2010. Microaggressions and Marginality: Manifestation, Dynamics, and Impact. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons.

Sue, Derald Wing, Christina M. Capodilupo, Gina C. Torino, Jennifer M. Bucceri, Aisha Holder, Kevin L. Nadal, and Marta Esquilin. 2007. “Racial Microaggressions in Everyday Life: Implications for Clinical Practice.” American Psychologist 62, no. 4: 271.

Sue, Derald Wing, Annie I. Lin, and David P. Rivera. 2009. “Racial Microaggressions in the Workplace: Manifestation and Impact.” In Praeger Perspectives: Race and Ethnicity in Psychology, edited by J. L. Chin, 157–172. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger.

Swift, Mike. 2010. “Blacks, Latinos, and Women Lose Ground at Silicon Valley Tech Companies.” San Jose Mercury News, February 11, 2010.

Sydell, Laura. 2018. “Immigrant Rights Group Turns Down $250,000 from Tech Firm over Ties to Border Patrol.” NPR, July 19, 2018.

Tarrow, Sidney. 2010. “Preface.” In The World Says No to War: Demonstrations against the War on Iraq, vol. 33, edited by Stefaan Walgrave and Dieter Rucht, vii. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Taylor, T. L. 2018. Watch Me Play: Twitch and the Rise of Game Live Streaming. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

ten Oever, Niels. 2018. “Guidelines for Human Rights Protocol Considerations.” IETF Human Rights Protocol Considerations Research Group, September 7, 2018.

Terranova, Tiziana. 2000. “Free Labor: Producing Culture for the Digital Economy.” Social Text 18, no. 2: 33–58.

Thatcher, Margaret. 1987. “Aids, Education and the Year 2000!” Interview by Douglas Keay. Woman’s Own, October 31, 1987.

Thurm, Scott. 2018. “These Tech Companies Will Need More Women on their Boards.” Wired, October 2, 2018.

Tong, Traci. 2017. “A Lack of Clean and Safe Toilets Leaves Women Vulnerable to Rape and Attacks.” PRI, November 29, 2017.

Toupin, Sophie. 2014. “Feminist Hackerspaces: The Synthesis of Feminist and Hacker Cultures.” Journal of Peer Production, no. 5.

Trans*H4CK. n.d. “Our Mission.” Trans*H4CK. Accessed January 14, 2017.

Treré, Emiliano. 2012. “Social Movements as Information Ecologies: Exploring the Coevolution of Multiple Internet Technologies for Activism.” International Journal of Communication 6:19.

Trujillo, Josmar. 2004. “CNN Attempts Actual Journalism—but Reverts to Embedded Reporting.” FAIR, August 19, 2004.

Truth, Sojourner. 1995. “Ain’t I a Woman?” In With Pen and Voice: A Critical Anthology of Nineteenth-Century African-American Women. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.

Tufekci, Zeynep. 2017. Twitter and Tear Gas: The Power and Fragility of Networked Protest. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Turner, Fred. n.d. “Don’t Be Evil.” Logic, no. 3: 17–37.

Turner, Fred. 2009. “Burning Man at Google: A Cultural Infrastructure for New Media Production.” New Media & Society 11, nos. 1–2: 73–94.

Turner, Fred. 2010. From Counterculture to Cyberculture: Stewart Brand, the Whole Earth Network, and the Rise of Digital Utopianism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Turner, Phil, and Susan Turner. 2011. “Is Stereotyping Inevitable when Designing with Personas?” Design Studies 32, no. 1: 30–44.

Tweney, Dylan. 2009. “DIY Freaks Flock to ‘Hacker Spaces’ Worldwide.” Wired, March 29, 2009.

Tynes, Brendesha M., Chad A. Rose, and Suzanne L. Markoe. 2013. “Extending Campus Life to the Internet: Social Media, Discrimination, and Perceptions of Racial Climate.” Journal of Diversity in Higher Education 6, no. 2: 102.

Tyson, Alec, and Shiva Maniam. 2016. “Behind Trump’s Victory: Divisions by Race, Gender, Education.” Fact Tank, Pew Research Center, November 9, 2016.

Union of the Physically Impaired Against Segregation (UPAIS). 1975. “Fundamental Principles of Disability.” The Disability Studies Archive

Varon, Joana, and Corinne Cath. 2015. “Human Rights Protocol Considerations Methodology.” IETF Human Rights Protocol Considerations Research Group, July 6, 2015.

Volz, Dustin. 2017. “IBM Urged to Avoid Working on ‘Extreme Vetting’ of U.S. Immigrants.” Reuters, November 16, 2017.

Von Hippel, Eric. 2005. Democratizing Innovation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

VozMob Project. 2011. “Mobile Voices: Projecting the Voices of Immigrant Workers by Appropriating Mobile Phones for Popular Communication.” In Communications Research in Action: Scholar-Activist Collaborations for a Democratic Public Sphere, edited by Philip M. Napoli and Minna Aslama, 177–196. New York: Fordham University Press.

Wachter-Boettcher, Sara. 2017. Technically Wrong: Sexist Apps, Biased Algorithms, and Other Threats of Toxic Tech. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.

Wagoner, Maya. 2017. “Technology against Technocracy: Toward Design Strategies for Critical Community Technology.” MSc diss., Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Wajcman, Judy. 1991. Feminism Confronts Technology. University Park, PA: Penn State Press.

Wajcman, Judy. 2010. “Feminist Theories of Technology.” Cambridge Journal of Economics 34, no. 1: 143–152.

Wakabayashi, Daisuke. 2017. “Google Fires Engineer Who Wrote Memo Questioning Women in Tech.” New York Times, August 7, 2017.

Walgrave, Stefaan and Dieter Rucht. 2010. “Introduction.” In The World Says No to War: Demonstrations against the War on Iraq, vol. 33, edited by Stefaan Walgrave and Dieter Rucht, xiii. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Wallerstein, Immanuel. 2011. The Modern World-System I: Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World-Economy in the Sixteenth Century. Vol. 1. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.

Walter-Herrmann, Julia, and Corinne Büching, eds. 2014. FabLab: Of Machines, Makers and Inventors. Bielefeld, Germany: Transcript Verlag.

Watkins, Craig S. 2019. Don’t Knock the Hustle: Young Creatives, Tech Ingenuity, and the Making of a New Innovation Economy. Boston: Beacon Press.

Waxman, Olivia. 2017. “Women in Tech and the History behind That Controversial Google Diversity Memo.” TIME, August 8, 2017.

Web We Want. 2014. “III DiscoTech in Istanbul: Sharing Circumvention Tactics.” Web We Want, August 22, 2014.

Weeden, Kim A., Youngjoo Cha, and Mauricio Bucca. 2016. “Long Work Hours, Part-Time Work, and Trends in the Gender Gap in Pay, the Motherhood Wage Penalty, and the Fatherhood Wage Premium.” RSF: The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences 2, no. 4 (August): 71–102.

Weishaar, Kate, Calvin Zhong, and Daniel Cheng. 2017. Open Book/Libro Abierto. Civic Media Collaborative Design Studio. Cambridge, MA: MIT.

White, Sarah C. 1996. “Depoliticising Development: The Uses and Abuses of Participation.” Development in Practice 6, no. 1: 6–15.

Wiener, Anna. 2017. “How Silicon Valley’s Workplace Culture Produced James Damore’s Google Memo.” New Yorker, August 10, 2017.

Williamson, Bess. 2019. Accessible America: A History of Disability and Design. New York: NYU Press.

Williamson, Sara Elizabeth. 2011. “The Right to Design Disability and Access in the United States, 1945–1990.” PhD diss., University of Delaware.

Willis, Anne-Marie. 2006. “Ontological Designing.” Design Philosophy Papers 4, no. 2: 69–92.

Willoughby, Kelvin W. 1990. Technology Choice: A Critique of the Appropriate Technology Movement. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Wilson, Brent Gayle. 1996. Constructivist Learning Environments: Case Studies in Instructional Design. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.

Wilson, Franklin D. 2016. Generational Changes in Racial Inequality in Occupational Attainment, 1950–2010: A Synthetic Cohort Analysis. University of Wisconsin-Madison, Institute for Research on Poverty.

Wilson, Valerie, and William M. Rodgers III. 2016. “Black-White Wage Gaps Expand with Rising Wage Inequality.” Economic Policy Institute, September 20, 2016.

Winner, Langdon. 1980. “Do Artifacts Have Politics?” Daedalus 109, no. 1 (Winter): 121–136.

Wittkower, D. E. 2016. “Principles of Anti-discriminatory Design.” Philosophy Faculty Publications, no. 28.

Wolfson, Todd. 2014. Digital Rebellion: The Birth of the Cyber Left. Champaign: University of Illinois Press.

Wood, Lesley J. 2014. Crisis and Control: The Militarization of Protest Policing. London: Pluto Press.

Woods, Jamila. 2016. “Way Up.” Recorded 2016. Closed Sessions. Track 13 on HEAVN

Wu, Kathy, Sam Daitzman, Aditi Jhaveri, Jade Bacherman, Maxwell Kreppein, Nina Cragg, and Alex Jin. 2017. Rainbow: Central Square Collage. Civic Media Collaborative Design Studio. Cambridge, MA: MIT.

Zaleski, Katharine. 2017. “The Maddeningly Simple Way Tech Companies Can Employ More Women.” New York Times, August 15, 2017.

Zuboff, Shoshana. 2015. “Big Other: Surveillance Capitalism and the Prospects of an Information Civilization.” Journal of Information Technology 30, no. 1: 75–89.

Zukin, Sharon, and Max Papadantonakis. 2017. “Hackathons as Co-optation Ritual: Socializing Workers and Institutionalizing Innovation in the ‘New’ Economy.” In Precarious Work, vol. 31, Research in the Sociology of Work, edited by Arne L. Kalleberg and Steven P. Vallas, 157–181. Bingley, UK: Emerald Publishing Limited.

kunal tomar:

There is a very good place to visit in Delhi such as Qutub Minar, Lotus Temple, Delhi Gate in all places, like any girl. If you go, you feel very good, so to roam, if you need a good girl who can accompany you, we are going to help you very much because when you wander with a girl in a big city So feel a good feeling in itself, so to give you a lot of pleasure these girls are being provided to you in which you can go to the movies and go shopping These Delhi Escorts Girls have a lot of hobbies, even if you are passionate about drinking whiskey with them, they are very funny with you, call our website to take advantage of 24 hours service.

jack william:

In the fast-paced world of app development, the choice of programming language plays a pivotal role in determining the success and efficiency of a project. The quest for the "No. 1" programming language in this domain is an ever-evolving debate, as new languages and tools emerge, each with its own set of advantages and use cases.

David worner:

When it comes to tiling projects, the devil is often in the details, and one essential detail that can make or break your project is the choice of tile spacers.

Joahn Ali:

Maintaining and cleaning your recliner is essential to keep it looking and functioning like new. Regular dusting and spot cleaning, proper leather and fabric care, and protection from sunlight can help prolong the life of your recliner. With these tips, you can enjoy your recliner for years to come.